(contd from previous issue)
4. # Songkho-on (Chawngkhum) Era (B.C 140-101): This era is the period of their settlement in Thakthing region and Irrawady river valley. The most powerful chieftain was Songkho-on. During this period, some clansmen travel to Arakan region and some of them into Chinhills.
5. # Mopung Era (B.C 100-50): Mopung became the most powerful chieftain after the death of Dangsa. The Shans continued to wage war against them even in their new settlement at Molpi. So they continued to travel further. Travelling to the most southern part and founded a new settlement in the Chindwin valley. They called this new location, ‘Bolkho’, (meaning swampy village).
6. # Dangsa Period (B.C 70): After the death of Songkho-on, Dangsa emerged as the strongest chief. ‘Songsang’ was their biggest village and centre of the period. The Shans attacked and captured Songsang. The Manmasi Kukis went southward to find a new location. They settled in a place called ‘Molpi’, (meaning, huge hill).
7. # Tamlop (B.C 60-10 A.D): Tamlop was their chieftain at Buolkho during 60-10 B.C. During this period, the Sijangs were famous for their blacksmithy. During Tamlop’s era, a certain chieftain was said to be very rich, who was stated to have meal in golden plate.
* Historical Chronology of Kuki People from 01-1919 A.D;
(Emergence of Kuki Kings and Kingdoms):
The era of chieftainship has come to an end and the emergence of small kingdoms started taking its root from A.D period onwards. Some of the available recorded kingdoms and kings of the Kuki-Manmasi people are briefly chronologised as under.
1. *Mangthangson (A.D 1-20): Mangthang was from Molcham. He was the most prominent Kuki Manmasi king of the period. Other prominent chieftainships of the period in and around Molcham are Galpi, Molpi, Molcham, Mangsaphai, Sikibung, Sipibung, Chonjolbung, Chalon, Sangthei, Jangtunlui, Sijol, Bungjol, Lapuphai, Kungbulbung, Hansebung, Phabanthra, Moirangkhom and Khambikhal etc, (The Marings by R.K Das).
2. * Chongphut (B.C 19-70): The next king to come in power was Chongphut. Nothing much is known about this chieftain. Chongphut’s territory comprised of Chindwin valley and its contagious regions. His capital was located at ‘Bolkho’,  in the Chindwin valley.
3. Thimzin (Total Darkness),(25-40 A.D): The period of ‘Thimzing’ is believed to be between A.D. 25-40. This unusual total darkness befell humanity for consecutive 7 days and 7 nights. There was shortage of dry firewood and other daily essential items. The interesting thing said about the unusual event was that the ghosts (spirits) of the dead visit human beings. It was also said that whoever doze were dying. In order to keep their eyes widely opened (not doze), they used to insert a bamboo-chip between the eyes to keep the eyes widely opened.
The clansmen gathered together at the house of the chieftain and sang together. The singers as well as the ‘Khongsai/Khongbeng’(drummers), party were said to be very melodious. It is from that period that those drummer groups came to be known as ‘Khongsai’ (meaning drummers or drum beaters). The song they sang goes as, “Kachung’ah thimpi ajinge, Jaitha nem in lhavai inge; Akhu meiloijing abang e, Chungleng arvan a bom e, Daidona tha daikom e, Jangsel bang kahung soh e, Sel-hon kilip silsel e, leilong hon jai kasa e”. Its free translation goes as, “Darkness befall upon me; Disgustingly I am discouraged, The darkness look like a heap of clouds, covered by a heap of dark clouds, The spirit of toleration diminishes, Like a Yak I exclaimed, A pack of shivering Yaks, we sang a group chorus”. Some people have died of the unusual darkness. By this time Chongphut’s wife bored him a son, whom he named as Sinson.
—to be contd