From previous issue
Even now the erected megaliths remain intact. At the time of dispersal they took oath that they would unite again in future and planted the tree called Chutebu. A genna is observed if a branch of this sacred tree is broken and it is also a taboo to cut the branches of the tree. According to T. C Hodson, “At Makhel is to be seen a stone now erect which marks the place from which the common ancestors (of the Nagas) emerged from the earth, Makhel is regarded as the centre from where the migration took place.”

From previous issue
According to D. R. Sardesai, after establishing full political control across the Yangtse, the Han dynasty pushed out the other ethnic groups of peoples from the area. In fact, some migrations had been happening for nearly two millennia before the political consolidation in the third century B. C. It was during the late period that ancestors of the people of Malaysia, Burma, Indonesia and Thailand did migrate under the Chinese political and military pressure along the source of rivers to the fertile plains and islands of Southeast Asia.

From previous issue
Recent genetic evidence on Y chromosome haplotype distributions outlines a picture about the origin and dispersion of Sino-Tibetan populations. A total of 31 indigenous Sino-Tibetian populations were studied by typing 19 Y chromosome biallelic and 3 Y chromosome microsatellite markers in 607 male individuals including Naga. The ancestors of the Sino-Tibetan population were originally from southern East Asia.

The Zeliangrongs are one of the natives of Northeast India. Myths, legends and traditions narrate the origin and migration of the Zeliangrong people. However, the actual original homeland and the migration routes of the Naga tribes including the Zeliangrong into the present habitat have not been fully studied.

From previous issue
This is called Kanungduipang Hekmei in local dialect. Kanungdui is the mythical river which symbolizes the boundary between life and death. Then, a man with the fire of thatching grass will wave inside the grave by way of purification called Maihammei.
Another idea of contacting fire is probably to give warm, light and comfort the soul on his way to the other world.

From previous issue
Taroimei means the dead man in local dialect. For the Taroimei, fly called Shim is supposed to be his Kashu Kari, evil spirits or enemy. In this belief, fly is not allowed to come and sit on the dead body. One of the chief mourners (family members) with the leaves of Parincheng, a kind of tree relatives will fan over the dead body to drive off the flies. It is said that the evil spirits dislike or scare to the Parincheng. This is locally known as Shimhamei.

From previous issue
Theimei (death):
Theimei (death) is the last crisis in the life cycle of an individual. It signifies the total cessation of life process that eventually happens in all living beings. The usual theory of the process of death is the separation of the soul from the body.99 However, the soul may move out from the body before death as in dream. Illness is held to be such a moving out from the body. The only distinction between such a separation and that of death is that the later is final. The moment when the final separation is accomplished, the liberated soul takes flight. It is believed that the soul commonly escapes by the natural openings of the body such as the mouth and nostrils. Among the Zeliangrong, death of a man is believed to be the departure of soul called Buh permanently from the momentary body for its journey to the land of death locally called Taroilam. Thus, death is not the end of life, but it is just a change of way of life of the soul.

Dr Budha Kamei
From previous issue
The family of the groom has to give the bride price fixed by the customs to the bride’s family. But if the bride does not like to live with the husband and if she divorces, then the bride price has to be returned by the bride’s family.87 On the other hand, if the groom divorces her the bride price has not given back. T.C.Hodson88 has mentioned about the bride price of the Zeliangrong as Seven buffaloes, two daos, two spears, two strings of beads made of conch shells, two ear ornaments, two black cloths, two eating vessels, and two hoes.

Dr Budha Kamei
From previous issue
In Zeliangrong society, marriage is considered not a simple social contract but a religious sacrament. A marriage relation between a man and woman cannot be disunited because it contains rite and rituals performed in the name of Tingkao Ragwang. On the day of marriage, Mhairakmei ceremony is performed in which a cock, a Laogai (a small iron spade, a symbol of sanctity) and a Guh (ginger) are offered to Tingkao Ragwang for long life, prosperity, and a long line of generation of the young couple.

From previous issue
It is a rite of incorporation which introduces the child into the family because without a name, a person cannot be counted as a member of the family.34 Fuller35 says, “A name is a kind of face whereby one is known.”Most commonly the ancestor names are given to the children. The name is given sometime having some definite signification, and mostly alluding to some supposed quality or to some accidental circumstance which have happened at the time of birth.36 In this regard, Colonel McCulloch writes, “Five days after the birth of a child it is named with various ceremonies names are not given at random but are compounds of father’s and grand father’s names or those of other near relations”.