Imphal, May 23: In what could be termed as corrobo-ration of serious concern fre- quently highlighted by the pa-rents regarding their young kids transported in an un-friendly manner by school van operators and other transpor-ters, no less than 15 students.....
IMPHAL, May 23: Pukhram-bam Juliana Chanu, who is virtually mute and has very low hearing capacity outshone a large number of her peers when she scored the highest mark (88 out of 100) in Philosophy apart from securing letter marks in four subjects in the.....
IMPHAL, May 23: Results of the class XII exam conducted by the Council of Higher Se-condary Education Manipur (COHSEM) have confused many people even as some others have started questioning if there were certain lapses or follies in the result. As per .....
IMPHAL, May 23: The State Cabinet has today given its approval for the recognition of three tribal dialects. Government Spokesperson, M Okendro said the three tribal dialects recognised by the State Government are Poumai, Liangmai and Gangte. Beside.....
IMPHAL, May 23: One former District Transport Officer (DTO) of Ukhrul issued 3057 driving licences in a single day and the revenue thus collected never reached the Government’s coffer. One G Athui, then Inspector (Mechanical) was given the charge of .....
IMPHAL, May 23: Along with inaugurating an Eklavya model residential school at Gamnom Saparmeina, Deputy Chief Minister Gaikhangam today dedicated two hostel buildings for scheduled tribe boys and girls students at the same area. Eklavya model resident.....
IMPHAL, May 23: The Ukhrul Autonomous District Council (ADC) has resolved to remove LN Kashung, CEO of Ukhrul ADC from his post for alleged ‘misconduct’ and ‘unbecoming act of a Govt servant’ under Section 32 (2) of the Manipur (Hill Areas) ADC Ac.....
IMPHAL, May 23: It is a big morale booster and a source of inspiration to all children living with HIV that a girl living with HIV and undergoing ART secured letter marks in four subjects in the Higher Secondary Examination 2013 conducted by the Council o.....
IMPHAL, May 23: An official team of Directorate of Education (S) led by its Director H Deleep today inspected Wangkhei High School, Keishamthong High School and Lamding High School in connection with the introduction of Mentoring System at a few selected .....
IMPHAL, May 23: The Development Protection United Voluntary Organisation has urged the concerned to make a clarification on locking of Nambol Leirel High School by a person who identified himself as an RPF activist yesterday. In a press conference held.....
IMPHAL, May 23: The Samulamlan Village Authority has urged the authority concerned to complete the installation of Mobile BTS at Samulamlan within June this year. A statement issued by the chief/chairman of Samulamlan VA, K Paohminglen said the VA woul.....
IMPHAL, May 23: Thadou Students Association-General Headquarters (TSA-GHQ) has formally become the unit of All Tribal Students Union, Manipur (ATSUM). Three of the TSA-GHQ 'officials' have also been inducted to the ATSUM fold today where an oath-takin.....
IMPHAL, May 23: In the backdrop of the alleged forced eviction of Kabow Leikai, a fasting prayer would be organised on Sunday (May 26) in respective Church which would be followed by a peace rally and public meeting on May 27. This was decided during .....
IMPHAL, May 23: Troops of 116th Bn BSF today detected an IED weighing around 10 Kgs at Wangjing Heituppokpi, Thoubal district. The bomb detected by BSF troops posted at Wangjing was retrieved by a bomb disposal squad of Manipur Police and they set of.....
IMPHAL, May 23: The 2nd phase lists of selected SC students of the State for the award of Post Matric Scholarship for the year 2012-13 were notified on the notice board of the Directorate of MOBC & SC located at Old Gauhati HC Complex and on the website w.....
IMPHAL, May 23: The Indian Dental Association (IDA), Manipur State Branch has celebrated the 24th anniversary function of the association on May 20 at Classic Hotel, Imphal. The programme was presided by Dr T Nabachandra Singh, president of the IDA (MS.....
IMPHAL, May 23: A one-day diabetes free health camp was held today at Lecture Hall-2 of Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Medical Sciences, Porompat. As chief guest of the event, North East Elderly Women chief editor RK Nayansana Devi noting that diabetes.....
KANGGUI, May 22: Everything is set in order for the one day Cultural and Musical Exchange programme jointly organised by Senapati District Students Association and Kuki Students' Organization, Sadar Hills in association with Student Mobilization Initiati.....
IMPHAL, May 23: JAC against the rape of a student of TG Hr Sec School on Oct 20, 2012 has urged the concerned authority to conduct the trial against the rapists fairly. A statement issued by the JAC today reminded that the number of crimes rises due to.....
Ukhrul, May 23: The Northern Students’ Union (Raphei Katamnao Long), Ukhrul District has appreciated the ADC, Ukhrul for timely implementation of developmental projects in various departments particularly in the field of Education in the Northern area o.....
The Out-of-Africa origin of modern humans from East Africa is the predominant position held by the scientific community based on genetic, linguistic and archaeological evidence.
Recently, there has been some news about the identification and dating of 6 fossilised teeth discovered from Myanmar in 2005. It was first published in the journal PloS Biology on June 4 2012 as Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Prof Jaegar clarifies that “Africa is the place of origin of man, and Asia is the place of origin of our forefathers.”[Animals]
There was an earlier Chinese discovery of a skull in 1958 that claimed that human ancestors evolved in China. That was unsubstantiated. It was all hot air. The Chinese always thought of themselves as the oldest men in the world.
To prove that a fossil finding is evolutionarily traceable it must be confirmed by either (1) archaeological dating [direct] or (2) DNA analysis [indirect] or both.
The Myanmar teeth (Afrasia) were found in the sediment near Nyaungpinie in central Myanmar, by Prof Christopher Beard of the Carnage Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, US and other international researchers. The teeth are dated to 37 million years ago. It was first published in the Journal PloS Biology as Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, US.
Prof Jean-Jacques Jaegar of the University of Poitiers of France, one of the researchers said the size of the teeth suggested that they belonged to a tiny prehistoric animal (anthropoid) weighing around 3.5 ounces (100 grams) about the size of a chipmunk [or squirrel] and probably ate insects.
The teeth are similar to an earlier finding of isolated anthropoid upper and lower teeth (Afrotarsius) in Libya, dated 38 million years ago.
Because the Libyan anthropoid was 1 million years older, the team suggested that the anthropoids (that include monkeys, apes and human beings), originated in Asia and moved to Africa. The theory needs more discoveries. One swallow does not make the summer.
A Luijiang skeleton, consisting of a cranium and limited postcranial material, was discovered in a small cave at Tongtianyan in China in 1958 by people collecting fertiliser (Wu 1959). Recently a Uranium series date 67,000+6,000-5,000 was reported for Luijiang (Wu 1988).
The “Out of Africa” model (1987), which holds the theory that modern humans first appeared in eastern Africa about 150,000 years ago and migrated out of Africa about 89,000 years ago. They arrived at India (Jawalapuram) at 75,000 years BP and at South China about 100,000 years BP.
This would make Luijiang skeleton the earliest example of Homo sapiens from the East Asian region. However, the stratigraphic relationship of the dated stalactite layer and the human skeletal materials can not be confirmed (Chen and Zhang 1991). For the present, the Liujiang skeleton remains undated. And so is the Chinese origin of humans.
The Chinese claim was dismissed by Western scientists as merely Evolutionary Psychology and the promotion of “Chinese first” media hype.
The “Out of Africa model” also supports the “multiregional” hypothesis of human origin” and is contending that Homo erectus from Africa dispersed much earlier into other portions of the Old World until they were later replaced by ancestors of modern humans (Homo sapiens)
Homo erectus was found all over the world; over 40 specimens of Asian Homo erectus were found in China and have been dated 220.000 to 500,000. Java man, 800.000 years old was discovered in Java in 1891
Lucy, the earliest specimen that is thought to be of the ‘first to stand upright’ and 3.2 million year old was found in Ethiopia in 1974.
The multiregional hypothesis does not mean that different human beings just appeared at different parts of the world. Every primitive people have their own mythical origin.
Among the Tasmanian aborigines, they were created by a god named Moinee. Once there was a deadly fight between a god called Moinee and a rival god called Dromerdeener up in the sky. Moinee was defeated and thrown down and he fell on Tasmania and died there. Before he died he wanted to give a last blessing to his final resting place, and so he created humans. During his dying moments when his mind was a bit blurred he forgot to give them knees. Instead he gave them big tails like that of Indian Hanuman. Because of the tails they could not sit down. So they cried and wailed.
Dromerdeener who was having his victory parade in the sky heard their cry. He came down to Tasmania to see what was happening. He took pity on the tailed humans and gave them knees and took off the tails. So the Tasmanians lived happily ever after up to this day.
Whoever told such a story, he made it up and it got embroidered over the centuries. There could never have been only one man (god) to produce humanity. There must have been one man and one woman. The reproductive process does not produce clones of either parent. It draws from both parents. That’s why we have unique DNA, which has coded messages from both parents how to build human babies.
Let me recap what I have written in the past about our ancestor human migration from Africa to the rest of the world, including Manipur. Long before our own species migrated from Africa, other hominid (human-like/early human) species migrated out of Africa at different times, and already covered much of the world at the time the modern humans began expanding from Africa.
Our own species, Homo sapiens originated in North East Africa about 200,000 years ago. This is supported by both archaeological and genetic studies.
About 85,000 years ago, a group of humans living in the region, that is now Ethiopia/ Eritrea in North East Africa crossed the Red Sea to the Arabian Peninsula and expanded further. All non-African humans including the Meiteis, who are alive today, have descended from this group of people. This is supported by both archaeological and genetic studies.
The following excerpts are based on “The Prehistory of Homo Sapiens” based on the Out of Africa model.
About 85,000-75,000 years ago the group mentioned above rapidly spread across along the costal path of the Arabian countries and crossed the Persian Gulf into Iran. They continued through Iran to Pakistan, all the way around the coastline of India, into Southeast Asia. They spread across the island of Indonesia. A wave then turned north, to colonise the southern coast of China.
About 74,000 years ago, a disaster struck our species. That was the eruption of Mount Toba volcano in Indonesia, which pretty much wiped off humanity living in Cambodia, Thailand, Myanmar, India and Pakistan, up to southern Iran. It is estimated that India and Pakistan were covered by 5 meters deep ash from the eruption.
About 73,000- 65,000 years ago the human population re-established itself.
During the next 65,000-52,000, humans repopulated India. This happened from two directions: from the population in Burma and Bangla Desh populating India from the east and from the population in Iran populating India from the west.
During 52,000-45,000, humans crossed the Bosphorous (Istanbul, Turkey) and spread from there into Europe.
Between 45,000- 40,000: there were several waves of migrations: (1) from coastal China to inland China, and into Japan; (2) from India through the northeast corridor [Manipur] and Myanmar, people moved northwards across the eastern edge of the Himalayas, into the Tibetan plateaux.
From 40,000-25,000, populations from central Asia spread in three directions: (1) into Eastern Europe; (2) Arctic Circle; and (3) Eastern Siberia.
From 25,000-22,000, populations from Berangia crossed the Bering land bridge and settled in North America.
Between 21,000-19,000: the Last Ice Age (Last Glacial Maximum) ended. Many northern areas were depopulated except for little pockets of people that stayed to survive the harsh conditions.
Between 19,000-15,000: humans spread north to south US, Mexico, central and South America.
Between 15,000-10,000: people from Berangia made their way to Northern Canada (Eskimos) and then to the rest of Canada.
Between 10,000-8,000: people finally spread to northern Europe, British Isles and European Russia. Finally people from Egypt and the Levant spread across the Sahara desert, which was grassland at that time, to populate Southern Sahara.
The genetic evidence is finger prints of human expansion from Africa and they are supported by archaeological evidence. The oldest known fossil chopping stone tools dating to 2.5 million years ago were discovered in Ethiopia.
As the map shows, the human expansion from India was through the Northeast of India, and more likely than not, through Manipur because of the easily accessible land corridor through Moreh at the Myanmar border. That was why the Allied Army made the Indo-Burma road through Manipur during WWII.
It is worth mentioning that there is no archaeological or genetic evidence of Neolithic humans ever coming to Manipur from Thailand or anywhere in the East. The Meiteis of Manipur, their language Meiteilon and Meitei mayek (Meitei alphabet) are unique. The Meiteis are autochthonous, having primarily arrived from Africa.
The writer is based in the UK
“The Meiteis of Manipur, their language Meiteilon and Meitei mayek (Meitei alphabet) are unique.” Thanks Dr. Irengbam Mohendra for using the terms rightly. We should continue to use such terms correctly i.e., “Meiteilon”, “Meitei mayek” etc. so as to encourage and guide our youngsters for a better future.
Dear Dr Irengbam Mohendra Singh, I appreciate your contribution in various areas of studies. Your current article “Human exodus from Africa to Tibet through Manipur authenticated” is a thought provoking one. In fact you have already pointed out some of these in your book “The origin of the Meiteis of Manipur & Meiteilon is not a Tibeto-Burman language”. Now my concern is more of peaceful coexistence with the people with whom we live in our present context rather than such hypothesis. Particularly, the hypothesis that divides family into hatred should be discouraged. The present context of Manipur is in a chaotic situation. Communal hatred has become an open phenomenon. We can vividly see emotional attachment of brotherhood from this land is vanishing each day. Now tribal leaders in Manipur are already with the hypothesis that Meiteis are not our brothers & sisters—there is no blood relation between Meiteis & tribals. Based on this, they are now trying to separate politically & geographically from Meiteis of Manipur. Let me not elaborate much on it for you know better than me. Few crucial things to ponder upon are: i) Are you saying that Meiteis are completely different from the surrounding tribal people? ii) It is generally accepted that surrounding tribal people in Manipur speak Tibeto-Burman language and they belong to Mongoloid race. Are you saying that Meiteilon is not Tibeto-Burman language and Meiteis don’t belong to Mongoloid race? iii) If I am not mistaken, you seem to be pouring fuel in the burning fire by saying that Meiteis are racially, linguistically different from the surrounding tribal people in Manipur. Your hypothesis concerning Meitei race seems to be one-sided and egocentric in outlook. Perhaps, this erroneous is due to your profession. A physician tying to be an anthropologist—ended with catastrophic result. Have you ever realized that the surrounding tribal leaders in Manipur are now using your article and book for widening the gap between Meiteis and nonMeiteis? They are now using it as a tool to divide the land & people of Manipur. I am sorry for being harsh here but this is the reality. In fact, I was waiting for someone to point this out but no one has come forward so far. So now the urgent need of our Manipur is of peaceful coexistence with the people with whom we live. Therefore, we should encourage talking and thinking more about oneness rather than promoting exclusive and egocentric theory. Let the indigenous people of Manipur be one, let them live as one.
You r right my dear brother i agree with ur proposition that in this time of urgent need to undo d past missdeed v d Meitie bring upon in our society bcoz of our jingoistic Meitie centric idelogy & one sided Metie chauvinist, any observation or personal comment which instigate d rift among d people will only widen d gulf between d valley & hills, it may fulfilled egos of some general reader who only feed upon d "Collective Ego" but in d long run & cosidering d present context of our society it will only bring dooms upon d people who had been coexisting from time immemorial. Dear Dr. Mehendra i appreciate ur hard work & ur deep knowlegde in many field like Religion, Medical science & other intetesting field of current human behavior & it is my humble request to u to understand & explore more to d darkside of "Human Collective Ego" which is d evil force that divide all d nation in general & in particular destroy d fraternity among d individual. I do hope if u had knoweth d truth of all religion than u will agree with my proposition, IT IS THE SIMPLE TECHNIQUE OF SURVIVAL TO BE A CONFORMIST BUT TO TREAD UPON THE NARROW PATH OF WISDOM IS THE NIRVANA / ENLIGHTENMENT.
This man Irengbam Mohendro must be a joker, a dogmatist. His writings are all bullshit. I wonder why sangai express publish his nonsense blah blah.
Thanks Valley Meitei for your outstanding remarks! We need such remark in our society. It is an eye opening deliberation therefore others also should come forward and discourage such theory that destroys human relation. Dr. Irengbam Mohendra Singh’s book “The origin of the Meiteis of Manipur & Meiteilon is not a Tibeto-Burman language” has already made damage among the indigenous people living in Manipur. We have been living together since time immemorial. We are related in blood & we belong to the same human race i.e., Mongoloid race. Therefore, I would like to request Dr. Irengbam Mohendra Singh not to pour out any further fuel in the burning fire by creating unacceptable theory. We are now looking for a kind of constructive theory for our peaceful coexistence in our land. Let us say one & all a big ‘NO’ to the destructive theory. Thanks!
Dr. Mohendra Singh’s book “The origin of the Meiteis of Manipur & Meiteilon is not a Tibeto-Burman language” should be condemned by one and all. This is misleading the people in Manipur.
“The Meiteis are autochthonous, having primarily arrived from Africa.” Dr. Irengbam Mohendra Singh—are you trying to say that Meiteis are also Negros or Negroid race?
@ Valley Meitei and others. I'm very grateful for your thoughtful comments. Points taken. I'm not for dividing Manipur. It's other way round. Pl ref to my article- Peaceful coexistence in manipur dt Jan 10 2012, The Sangai Express, suggesting ways of all the communities in Manipur to live togther in harmony. As I've done research only on Meiteis and I've not known anything about other tribal groups in Manipur I've confined myself to writing about the Meteis. It's because a few Indian and foreign researchers have done research on the tribal peoples of Northeast but without the Meiteis, who they think are not tribals. This is a scietific article. My only comment here is that Meiteis, Meitelon and Meitei mayek are unique and indigenous. I cannot say anything about others though we are all indigenous peoples of Manipur. It's not only my opinion; it's documented in the Puyas,and by others. I'm sorry if I've offended anybody. Thanks again for pointing out.
Yes Valley Meitei, Nameless Warrior, Th. Kanhai Y. Chandramani, Kumar, your comment about the article of Dr Irengbam Mohendro Singh is the right comment. The research findings of many researchers on the evolution of human being is very controversial. Such a controversial topic coming as an article may invite criticism from many angles. The western media and researchers are doing many research on the history and anthropological study of many ethnic groups under certain hidden political agenda to control world power and resources. When they came to Manipur, they coined certain term to certain tribes as Kuki and Naga to reduce the power of the native rulers.All the historical,social and cultural records were not fairly documented by the British authorities. All the books and records written about Manipur, north east by British officers were kept in Library in London. Some of the officers were not subject experts. As for example, Lai Haraoba was wrongly translated as merry making of god.The translation has wrong implication and diluting the sanctity of Lai Harouba festival. Regarding the Umang Lai, it was wrongly translated as forest god.It actual interpretation is Una Una Mangba (vanishing from sight). The documents found in the London library regarding the historical and social records can no longer hold in the present contemporary multipolar world view.The regimented knowledge realm of the west has been slowly shattered with the emergence of orientalist view propounded by China, Japan and India.The ownership and control of knowledge world by the west cannot be permanent.The monopolistic view on the human science and social value system of west has been regarded by our educated people of Manipur as highest truth.Better to discard such manufacture information on human genome map of the west.All human being originated parallely all over the continents as ex amplified by endemic of flora and fauna in every continents.Please write something within the visible range of the historical records proved by the intact documents.Sir please write something on the parallel development of human species all over the continents.
Meiteis are from Africa! Why then no resemblance? Evolution? Yes, but no retention of any negroid race. If Meiteis are from Africa, go back to Africa. No body in Africa speak meiteilon. No meitei mayek in there. How dare you trace your origin? Why fight for integrity of Manipur when you don't belong here? Allow the Kukis and Nagas to have their way out. The land of Manipur belongs to them and not to the Meiteis. I hope you did not get your doctoral degree from this false premise!