Bamboo as a green gold bioresource of Manipur
Dr N Irabanta Singh & Aeroshil Nameirakpam
Dr N Irabanta Singh & Aeroshil Nameirakpam
Bamboo is also known as “Green gold” in the Asian culture. It is also a symbol of friendship in India. Besides the uses of bamboo in our day to day life and the business, the bamboo products can generate an enormous amount and has tremendous prospective, more especially in the North Eastern Region (NER) of India. North East India accounts for 66% of the bamboo growth in India and as per assessment of united Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), the bamboo business in the North East India region has a potential of about Rs. 5000 crores in the next ten years.
Data presentation: World bamboo day (18th September) is a day of celebration to increase the awareness of bamboo globally. The first world bamboo day was celebrated in September 18, 2009 at Prachan Buri, Thailand during the world bamboo congress at Bangkok, Thailand. Since then, world bamboo day is being celebrated every year on 18th September. The 10th world bamboo Day celebration (18th September, 2018) was started at Singjamei community hall, Imphal (Manipur) with the speaker, Manipur State Legislative Assembly as Chief Guest. The Chief guest stated that bamboos are capable of multiplying its production within 3/4 years of growth cycle as compared to other trees which takes almost 40-50 years. He said that China is planning to substitute 50 percent of all home-made materials like tiles and ceilings with bamboos by 2020.
Director, National bamboo mission (Manipur chapter) stated that the climate and landscape of Manipur is suitable for growing bamboo and the Government is ready to provide the required technical support, capacity building, skill development and financial assistance for more production and in turn to boost states economy.
Earlier, a rally was also undertaken by the organizers from Kangla to Singjamei as a part of the event. Different bamboo products like bicycle, furniture, electronic goods and other byproducts made from bamboos by local entrepreneurs were exhibited during the function.
Bamboo symposium / lectures by experts from the NE India and painting competition by the school children were held on September 19th and 23, 2018 respectively. A newsletter on bamboo was also released on the opening day (18th September, 2018) by the Chief Guest.
Bamboo of Manipur: There are 51 species of bamboos in Manipur (Table 1) (ENVIS Centre, Manipur, 2015). Out of these Waak (Arundinaria racemosa Munro.), Saneibi (Bambusa tulda Roxb.), Maribob (Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro.); Moubewaa (Melocanna bambusoides Trins), etc. are popular bamboo species in Manipur. The most popular bamboo species are Waak (A. racemosa Munro) for a variety of uses, and Saneibi (B. tulda Roxb.) for building construction.
Table 1: Bamboo Species of Manipur
Sl. No Scientific Name Local Name
1 Arundinaria callosa Munro. (Laiwa)Shoidon
2 Arundinaria clarkei Wa
3 Arundinaria debilis Thawaites
4 Arundinaria falconeri Benth. & Hook
5 Arundinaria kurzii Tenwa manbi
6 Arundinaria prainii Gamble
7 Arundinaria racemosa Munro Waak
8 Arundinaria rolloana Gamble Tenwa
9 Bambusa sps 1 (Mritega)
10 Bambusa auriculata Kurz.
11 Bambusa balcoona Roxb. Leewa or pulka
12 Bambusa binghami Gamble Wayeng
13 Bambusa burmanica Gamble
14 Bambusa khasiana Munro.
15 Bambusa kingiana Gamble Watangkhoi
16 Bambusa nana Roxb Khokwa
17 Bambusa natans Wall Utang
18 Bambusa oliveriana Gamble Warak
19 Bambusa pallida Munro Moirangwa
20 Bambusa polymorpha Nachiwa
21 Bambusa schzostachyoides Kurz Waa-pharak
22 Bambusa sps 2 (Wootang manbi)
23 Bambusa tulda Roxb. Saneibi
24 Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. Lam Sanebi/Jai-baruwa
25 Cephalostachyum capitatum Munro
26 Cephalostachyum fuschisnum
27 Cephalostachyum latifolium Munro Yotcheiwa
28 Cephalostachyum pallidum Munro
29 Cephalostachyum pergracile Munro Pongshang
30 Dendrocalamus brandisii . Kurz Wamu
31 Dendrocalamus flagellifer Munro Longwa
32 Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro Maribob
33 Dendrocalamus hamiltonii . Nees & Arn Unap/Wanap/Retcha
34 Dendrocalamus hookere Unap
35 Dendrocalamus longifimbriatus Bamble Woonan
36 Dendrocalamus longispathus Kurz. Chingwa/Unap-manbi
37 Dendrocalamus membranaceus Munro Unan khongdangbi
38 Dendrocalamus sericeus Munro Ooei
39 Dendrocalamus sps 2 Uriwa
40 Dendrocalamus sps1 Wamitchao
41 Dendrocalamus strictus Nees unan
42 Gigantocloa macrostachya Gonan(Kuki)
43 Melocalamus indicus . Manjumdar. R Umu
44 Melocanna bambusoides . Trins Moubiwaa
45 Oxytenanthera abaciliata Gotang(kuki)
46 Phylloatachys bambusoides Wamanh(kuki)
47 Pseudostachyum polymorphum Munro Talak wa
48 Teinostachyum dullooa Gamble Tolluwaa/Dullo
49 Teinostachyum sp. Bashiwaa
50 Teinostachyum wightii Beddome Naat
51 Thyrsostachys oliveri Gamble Kabo waa/Keirak waa
Discussion: The employment potential of bamboo is very high, and the major work force constitutes of the rural poor, especially women and 432 workdays per annum are provided by the bamboo sector in India. Rapid increase in the demand of bamboo in the industrial sector coupled with increase in domestic demand due to rising populations have caused depletion of the natural bamboo resources which calls for concerted efforts for the awareness to raise bamboo plantations in land hitherto barren degraded or in association with agricultural crops (Bamboo Informag, April 2014).
With the trend of decrease in production and rise in human population, the gap between supply and demand is going to be larger stressed that in India than demand for bamboo planting stocks are 90-120 million per annum, which is expected to increase to upto 300 million seedlings per annum. Large scale cultivation is the only way to prevent further depletion of bamboo resource, and to ensure a regular and sustained supply of raw material for growing industrial uses. This situation elucidates the needs for increase in bamboo plantation under various programmes has not been paid so for. Now farmers and villagers need to be involved in bamboo cultivation / production. Apart from protecting natural vegetation of bamboos, the activity has to be brought to the non-forest lands (Bamboo Informag April, 2014).
Summary: There is a low awareness regarding the potential of bamboo and associated products among users and even other stakeholders including the government. The locals in the region use it for everyday uses, but they are not aware of the economical, commercial and industrial applications of bamboo. Thus, we need awareness creation of bamboo and its connection with the poor stakeholders as a green gold bioresource of Manipur.
The First Writer is Retd. Professor (HAG) , Life Sciences, Manipur University and co-founder of Nibiaa Consultancy Pvt.Ltd and the second writer is Managing Director and Co-Founder of Nibiaa Consultancy Pvt.Ltd. Singjamei, Imphal – 795 008, Manipur