On ISIS : An understanding

Dr L Krishnamangol Singh
The spread of ISIS in the so called “Islamic World” has adverse impact not only in India but also in other parts of the world. It is well known that the ISIS in a rebellion and extremist group, which orginates in Iraq and Syria. And, it later occupied or operated major  parts of both the countries (i.e. Iraq and Syria). In fact, the name ISIS stands for “Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (i.e. ISIS) Today, it is also populary known as Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS). And, it is breiftly  or collectively used as Islamic State (i.e IS). To avoid confusion (on the concept of IS), the term ISIS or Islamic State (IS) is interchangeally used in the media reports and at the international level. In fact, the ISIS was originally a Jihadist or jihadi group in Iraq which later extended to Syria, where they (Members of the ISIS) become a strong group of Islamic terrorists.
The ISIS also seized enormous swaths of territory or areas in both Syria and Iraq in 2014. Since then, this has created serious impact of instability and insecurity in many aspects not only in Syria and Iraq but also in other countries inhabited/settled or dominated by Muslims. After capturing power in large lands in both Syria and Iraq, they (ISIS) seek to establish or expand the so called Islamic state (IS) in different parts of the world. The ISIS also initially referred to/mentioned or kept in view some countries which comprised Africa, the Middle East, South East Asia etc. where they mainly fixed their targets or aims for expansion of Al-Dawla or the state (i.e. the Islamic State) which is the term used by the ISIS to refer to their role of capturing power. In fact, the ISIS or Islamic State (IS) which orginated in Iraq is a religious fundamentalist and Islamic terrorists group and performs various unlawful activities in different parts of the world, including India.
It is widely known that the most terrible events that took place in Iraq in 2014 were the execution of a number of Western hostages. In fact, the United States of America had repeatedly waged war against ISIS operating in Iraq during the major part of 2014, and took initiatives and actions to destroy the terrorist activities of the ISIS in Iraq and Syria for about a decade (i.e. during the later part of the nineties and majort of the 2014.
The story of the ISIS reveals that there was also exploitation of the weaker section of the Muslims within the ISIS. There were also several leaders and groups within the sysem of ISIS, and the ISIS is a common concept which is still used to embrace all the groups. They also operated in different places/areas or regions in Iraq and Syria and also in foreign countries. It is also found that their objective of  al-Dawla or the state known as the Islamic State (IS) is to have or establish caliphates in different countries of the world. They were also concerned with terrorist activities about Sunni Muslims in different parts of the countries including Africa, Middle East South Asia etc. In fact, their activities or projects of Islamic State (IS) are in violation of national and international laws. However their objective was also to destroy the barriers between Syria and Iraq and also the barriers between or among the different nation states or the countries in order to establish a system of caliphates and expand Muslim empire in the world.
The various activities of the ISIS that took place in recent years and also in Sri Lanka and Indo-Pak border (i.e. Pulwama District in Jammu and Kashmir) have clearly revealed that the Islamic State (IS) has expanded the terrorist activitists which led to the killing of a number of peoples including non-muslims in different countries and that the group also seeks to expand international Jihalism i.e intenational terrorism of the Islamic Militants in order to capture power and expand caliphates in different parts of the worlds.
Thus it is found that the main idelology of the Islamic State (IS) or ISIS is to expand the Islamic empire in different part of the world.
But the United State (US) has been at war with ISIS leading to the decline of the activities of the ISIS in Iraq and Syria. And the repeated American bombing and bombing campaigns against ISIS led to the fall of ISIS’s activities in Iraq and Syria in recent years.
It is further found that with the decline of the Islamic State (IS) in Iraq and Syria, the ISIS has transformed or expanded as the ISIL (Islamic State of Iraq and Levant). Thus it is  reported that the ISIL is an acronym for the Islamic State of Iraq and Levant. And inspite of the differences and contradictions in the organisational structures and policies under different leaders, the ISIS has alternatively been translated and extended as ISIL In fact, the ISIL is an extended group of the large original organisation of ISIS, which is now united into one Jihadist Enterprise Organisation.
Thus it has been widely reported in the media that the Islamic State of Iraq and the  Levant (ISIL or ISIS) Group has now expanded its footprints in Afghanistan.
It is further observed that a large number of fighters of the ISIL or ISIS are now operating in Afghanistan after the decline of the Islamic State Organisation or ISIS Group in both Iraq and Syria. What is more threatening is that inspite of the end of conflicts between Shia Muslims and Sunni Muslims (i.e. between Shia rebel groups and Sunni rebel group) both in Iraq and Syria, and the unification of all the Muslim insurgency groups under one Jihadist enterprise or organisation (ISIS) which has now its footprint in Afghanistan, the unprecedented bomb blast or the massive bomb attack which took place on the late saturday (17.8.2019) at a wedding reception in west Kabul of Afghanistan has now created great panic not only among the people in Afghanistan but also among the people in the whole world.
It is well known that the incident took place at a time when the Taliban (Muslim Fundamentalist of Afghanistan) and United States (U.S.) have negotiated or finalised a deal or agreement on the withdrawal of U.S. military presence or the U.S. military forces from Afghanistan in order to move to the path of a ceasefire and peaceful atmostphere in the country. But the incident of the bomb blast at the wedding receiption on the wedding ceremony which was arranged in a packed Afghan wedding hall has now clearly revealed that the Shia Muslims who are minority are still being targeted or attaked in Sunni-majority Afghanistan by the ISIS Group. And it has also been reported that the ISIS or ISIL group of Afghanistan claimed responsibility for the bomb blast or the bomb attack, which killed 63 people and critically injured or wounded a large number of people (more than 180 people) gathered in the wedding hall.
The foregoing brief analyses have now clearly revealed that the old story of the conflicts and civil war between Shia Muslim and Sunni Muslims or Shia-Sunni Muslims in Iraq and Syria are now repeated in Afghanistan.
Thus in the context of India, it is highly essential to initiate or strengthen effective strategic policy measures to guard or protect against the spread of terrorist activities that may happen at any time in the country. In fact it is quite necessary to prepare for all strategic measures to guard against the adverse impacts of the epicentres of global terrorism and uproot the future of the global terrorist activities in a collective way among all nations including India.
 The writer is an economist, researcher and author