Contd from previous issue
5. Pickle : They are processed products preserved and flavoured in a solution of salt and vinegar with spice or oil. Eg mango pickle, cauliflower pickle, lime pickle, chilli pickle etc.
6. Fruit chutney: It is prepared by cooking fruit pulp with added salt, sugar, spices, acetic acid and/or dry fruits with total soluble solids not less than 50% and fruit part not less than 40%.
7. Jam: It is prepared by boiling fruit pulp with sufficient quantity of sugar, acid and pectin so as to set and become firm enough to hold the tissues in place. 45 parts of the pulp are used for every 55 parts of sugar and the final product contains not less than 68% total soluble solids. Eg. Pineapple jam, banana jam, mix fruit jam, apple jam etc.
8. Jelly: It is a well set transparent semi solid product prepared from fruit pectin extract on cooking with added sugar and acid.
9. Marmalade: It is a jelly like product made commonly from citrus fruits with shreds of peel suspended in the set gel.
10. Preserves: It is prepared by keeping and preserving fruits and vegetables as whole or large pieces in sugar syrup until the soluble solid concentration of about 68% or more is achieved. It should retain its form, crispiness and tenderness without shrivelling. Eg. Aonla Preserve, Apple preserve, Carrot preserve, Mango preserve etc..
11. Candied fruit and vegetable: It is prepared by impregnation of sugar into fruit/vegetable into the fruit/vegetable pieces followed by surface drying to give a transparent coating of sugar on the surface. Eg. Candied pineapple, Candied aonla etc.
12. Crystallized fruits/vegetables: When candied products are covered with sugar crystal by rolling and allowing crystals to settle on the surface it is known as crystallized fruits/vegetables. Eg. Crystallized apple, crystallized mango etc
13. Canning: It is a type of preservation of fruits and vegetables whole or in pieces in sugar syrup or brine by heat processing them in hermetically sealed container. Eg. Canned peas, canned broccoli, canned pineapple etc.
14. Dried/dehydrated vegetable: Moisture is removed from fruits and vegetables by heat without losing texture and integrity and to prevent infection by microorganism. Eg. Dried tree bean, dried aonla, dried bamboo shoot etc.
15. Sauerkraut: It is a product of lactic acid fermentation of cabbage having mild laxative property and stimulates the peptic gland. White cabbage is more suitable.
16. Mango slices: Dried slices of mango from dehydrator are powdered to prevent spoilage by high humidity during the rainy season.
17. Mango leather: Juice from ripe mango is dried and cut into sheets of suitable size and wrapped in a wax paper.
18. Fruit cheese: It is prepared from guava, apple, pear and plum or their combination by using their pulp with sugar, butter, citric acid and salt with a small amount of colour.
19. Fruit butter: It is prepared from pulp of apples, peaches, pears, apricots, plums, grapes etc. or their combination by cooking with sugar, spices like nutmeg, cinnamon, clove etc. apple butter is very popular.
20. Fruit toffee: It is prepared by using pulp of mango, guava, papaya etc. with sugar, glucose, skimmed milk powder and little ghee, essence and colour.
21. Papain: It is an enzyme prepared from dried latex of unripe papaya. It is in great demand in the international market.
Since there are a variety of ways for preparation of products from fruits and vegetables, there is a good scope to process the indigenous fruits and vegetables to increase the income of the farmers as well as to provide employment which would help in uplifting the development of the region.
Farmers and producers of the region should be given awareness about the benefit of processing and the help laid out by the Government for making food processing industries at small and medium scale considering the economic status of the farmers. During processing, good ideas should also be given about sanitation and the standard of the food safety rules so as to prevent any contamination in the processed products and prevent occurrence of any disease.
College of Horticulture, CAU, (Imphal), Thenzawl, Mizoram
For further details contact:- Public Relation & Media Management Cell,CAU, Imphal. Email [email protected]