National Statistics Day 2020 and statistical system in India

Dr N Sharat Singh
Contd from prev issue
-    The National Sample Survey (NSS) came into existence in 1950 to collect information through sample surveys on a variety of socio economic aspects.
-     In 1954, the National Income Unit was transferred from the Ministry of Finance to the CSO and a new Unit for Planning Statistics was set up.
-    In 1957, the subject of Industrial Statistics was transferred from the Ministry of Commerce and Industry to the CSO.
-    In April 1961, the Department of Statistics was set up in the Cabinet Secretariat and the CSO became a part of it.
-    In 1972, a Computer Centre in the then Department of Statistics was also set up.
-    In 1973, the Department of Statistics became a part of the Ministry of Planning.
-    In February 1999, the Department of Statistics and the Department of Programme Implementation were merged as the Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation under the Ministry of Planning and Programme Implementation.
-    In October 1999, the Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation was declared as the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MOSPI).
Present Statistical System: As the country has a federal structure of Govt., the division of responsibility for administration between the Union Govt. and the State Govt. is based on three fold classification of all subjects namely, Union List, State List, and Concurrent List. The subject Statistics is in the last one which represents the areas where both the Union and State Govt. can operate. The Indian Statistical System is largely decentralized with elements of central supervision. All-India largescale statistical operations – Population Census, Economic Census, Agricultural Census and Livestock Census, and nation-wide Sample Surveys, including the Annual Survey of Industries and the Socio - Economic Surveys, as well as compilation of Macro-Economic Aggregates like National Accounts, All-India Price Indices and Industrial Production, are mainly Central activities with substantial involvement of State agencies in data collection. The State Governments and statistical organizations of the States also collect and generate data on several parameters. The Central Govt. acts as the coordinating agency for the presentation of statistics on an all-India basis even in fields where the States have the primary authority and responsibility for the collection of statistics. The MOSPI is the nodal agency for all statistical activities at the all India level. The State Directorates of Economics and Statistics (DESs) carry out the responsibility of coordination of all statistical activities at the State level and keeping liaison with the MOSPI for coordination at all-India level, and for maintaining norms and standards in the field of official statistics.
The Directorates of Economics and Statistics (DESs) in the States /UTs act as the nodal agencies for the coordination of all statistical activities in the States/UTs. While most of the States /UTs have been formally declared by the State Governments as the Nodal Agencies on all statistical activities, a few though not yet formally declared, act as coordinating agency on statistical matters in the State/UT. Most of the States /UTs have District Statistical Offices (DSOs) which act as the field offices of the DESs for collection/compilation of statistical data in the districts. The DESs perform almost the same functions in the States / UTs as the National Statistical Organization (NSO) at the Centre viz. bringing out some key statistics, coordination with the Central and State statistical agencies, dissemination of statistics, etc.
In Manipur also, we have a Directorate of Economics and Statistics at Lamphelpat,Imphal functioning well because of social development in various parameters. It publishes a good number of publications like Manipur at a Glance; Population of Manipur (Social Statistical Indicator); Statistical Abstract of Manipur; Economic Survey Manipur; State Domestic Product of Manipur; A Picture of Manipur Budget; Gender Statistics, Manipur; Report on Crop Estimation Survey; Economic Census; Price statistics, Manipur etc. Utilizing these sources, we have benefited a lot of statistical data in framing and planning of policies. Understanding these data requirements, let us conduct research works to achieve global sustainable development goals (SDGs). In case of research projects, individuals may avail financial assistance from MOSPI under Plan Scheme Capacity Development with a quantum up to Rs. 15 lakhs. The professional/ research institutions engaged in the field of Official Statistics with qualified statisticians, economists and social scientists belonging to institutions receiving grants from UGC/ ISI/ CSIR and registered societies/ Trusts are eligible for assistance. The project format is available at and the proposal may be submitted through [email protected]
Viewing the present unrest situation in Manipurin many issues like boundary, homeland, indigenous population etc., we may observe the words of P. C. Mahalanobis that – In India we have clear evidence that administrative statistics had reached a high state of organization before 300 B.C. In the Arthasastra of Kautilya … the duties of the Gopa, the village accountant, … “by setting up boundaries to villages, by numbering plots of grounds as cultivated, uncultivated, plains, wet lands, gardens, vegetable gardens, fences (váta), forests altars, temples of gods, irrigation works, cremation grounds, feeding houses (sattra), places where water is freely supplied to travellers (prapá), places of pilgrimage, pasture grounds and roads, and thereby fixing the boundaries of various villages, of fields, of forests, and of roads, he shall register gifts, sales, charities, and remission of taxes regarding fields.”
The author is a faculty member of the Statistics Department, D. M. College of Science, Imphal.                      
Email: [email protected]