Breeding management of dairy cows for profitable farming

Saidur Rahman; Kalyan Sarma and Fazal Ali Ahmed
Dairying is an important source of subsidiary income to small/marginal farmers and agricultural labourers. To achieve the desired management efficiency, the farmer has to pay adequate attention to selection of animal and breeding management of the animal.
Selection of dairy cows
The animal should be attractive with feminine look.
· It should have wedge shaped body
· It should have bright eyes with lean neck.
· The udder should be well attached to the abdomen.
· The skin of the udder should have a good network of blood vessels.
· All four quarters of the udder should be well demarcated with well-placed teats.
· Select the animal from a reliable breeder or from nearest livestock market.
· Take the help of veterinary/animal husbandry officer to select the good cow.
· Animals of their second/third lactation should be selected.
Breeding management
The heifers and dairy cows should conceive in appropriate time for better production.
· Continuous bellowing
· Restless
· Sniffing by other animals
· Licking.
· Standing to be mounted (the key sign)
· The cow’s vulva appears moist, red and more swollen than usual with clear mucus discharge.
Timing of insemination
· A cow seen on heat in the morning –inseminate in the evening (AM-PM thumb rule)
· A cow seen on heat in the evening-inseminate in the next morning (AM-PM thumb rule)
· In order to detect heat signs the animals to be observed daily morning and evening as well as at the time of feeding and watering.
Pregnancy Diagnosis
· Date of A1/Natural Service is to be recorded.
· After 21 days of insemination the animals are to be observed for any estrus behaviour.
· If there is no estrus after service the animals are to be checked for pregnancy after 2-3 months from the date of service.
· Non-pregnant animals are to be inseminated in the next estrus.
· Animals which do not conceive after three inseminations are to be examined and treated accordingly by a veterinarian.
· Gestation period is 280-285 days in cows.

The writers are with College of Veterinary Sciences & A.H., Central Agricultural University, Selesih, Aizawl, Mizoram.

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Public Relation & Media Management Cell, CAU, Imphal. Email: [email protected]