Impact of climate change in agriculture and its management strategies
Lakshmi Dhar Hatai
Agricultural production is significantly responsive to fluctuation in climate. Climate change is the potential to affect crops, livestock, local agricultural economies and crop production trends. Climate change could result in greater instability in food production as well as threaten livelihood security of farmers. Climate is one of the main determinants of agricultural production and the livelihood of farmers. Climate change is a serious global challenge as it is one of the greatest environmental, social and economic threats facing the planet. According to world meteorological organization, climate change can adversely impact global environment, agricultural productivity and the quality of human life. A climate is a complex natural phenomenon comprising variables such as air temperature and humidity, wind and precipitation. According to United Nations Convention on climate change as “Change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods”. The climate change and its adverse impacts on agriculture, environment human health and economy have risen to the top of the agenda in various National and international forums.
Global warming, acid rain, depletion of stratospheric ozone layer, floods, droughts, tropical cyclones, heat waves, hot extremes, heavy precipitations, tsunamis are causes negatively affecting the agricultural production and farmers’ livelihood. The observed trends in global climate (IPCC, 2007) are indicative of considerable increasing green house gases (GHG), which are largely responsible for global warming. The surface air temperature for the period of 1901-2000 indicates a significant warming of 0.40C for 100 years. It is projected that rainfall will decreased by 15-40%, the mean annual temperature increased by 30C-60C at the end of 21st century. Small changes in temperature and rainfall could have significant effect on quality of fruits, vegetables, tea, coffee, aromatic and medicinal plants. Wheat crop is most sensitive to even small increase in temperature. A greater fertilizer used leads to higher emission of green house gases (Survey of Indian Agriculture, 2007).
Agriculture will be impacted by climate change in several ways:
·There will be reduced crop yield.
(To be contd)