World Veterinary Day, 2021 Environmental safety for enhancing animal and human well being

Dr K Rashbehari Singh
On the 24th April 2021 World Veterinary Day, 2021 will be celebrated globally on the theme of, ‘Environmental  safety for enhancing animal and human well-being’ and it is an opportunity for the veterinarians to  highlight  their  contributions  for  the health of animals, society and the environment.
Environmental safety is practices, policies, and procedures that ensure the safety and well-being of anyone in the immediate area. This can include safety in terms of proper waste disposal, containment and storage of potentially toxic chemicals and much more.The three primary areas where environmental safety is of particular concern are Occupational safety and health, Environmental control and Chemical safety.  These areas  are governed by laws at the municipal, State and federal level, and compliance with those regulations is of vital importance to many businesses.
Occupational safety and health: Many workplaces have dangerous chemicals, gases/fumes, waste and other potential threats to the health and safety of workers. Occupational safety and healthpractices are focused on environmental safety in the workplace, thereby reducing risks to employees in any given workplace.
Environmental control : Environmental controlis concerned with preventing pollution and other threats to the environment and anyone that may be affected by it. Preventing dumping of chemicals into the local ecosystem or ensuring proper management of waste materials are the examples of environmental control.
Chemical safety : Chemical safety is concerned with the safe storage, use and disposal of various chemicals.
Though environmental safety certainly makes demands of businesses in terms of costs of compliance, the reality is that doing so is imperative. Some of the worst man-made disasters were caused by inadequate environmental safety measures. Businesses and organizations have legal and moral obligations to observe environmental safety practices to avoid liabilities.
Ensuring the safety of an environment is key to productivity and function in a work or research setting. A safe place to work is the key element of environmental safety. An effective workplace health and well-being programme addresses individual, environmental and organizational factors affecting workers well-being simultaneously and can have a positive impact on worker productivity and performance as well as health and well-being of employees, families and communities.
The industrial age has added millions of tons of toxic contaminants into our environment. Pesticides, heavy metals (e.g. lead, mercury), synthetic chemicals and even chemicals from household products, endocrine disruptors (chemicals that interfere with natural hormone functions), etc.  are now pervasive in our air, water and soil. Combustion of coal produces a number of hazardous byproducts, including mercury, selenium, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and methane. These byproducts pollute the environment, exacerbate climate change and contribute to smog and acid rain. The toxins from mining coal wash downstream, poisoning animals that manage to survive in the toxic environment and tainting the drinking water of downstream communities.
Uranium causes irreversible pollution of waters and ends up in the food chain. It can contaminate aquatic ecosystems for hundreds of years, threatening downstream communities and fish and wildlife.  Oil-drilling method involving high-pressure hydraulic fracturing or “fracking” is highly controversial and dangerous and linked to water contamination and methane production.  
Toxic chemicals increase cancer rates, cause reproductive problems, and contribute to a wide range of other health problems. These toxic materials poison the future for all life on earth.  
Environmental health is the branch of public health that focuses on the interrelationships between people and their environment, promotes human health and well-being, and fosters healthy and safe communities. Environmental health works to advance policies and programs to reduce chemical and other environmental exposures in air, water, soil and food to protect residents and provide communities with healthier environments.
The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has clearly demonstrated that societies need to strengthen their resilience to pandemics and other emergencies. In the short term, countries are concentrating on supporting public health systems and addressing the immediate economic impacts of the crisis. However, in the medium to long terms, enhancing the environmental health of societies (aspects of human health and well-being that are determined by environmental factors) is a key component to the economic recovery and stimulus measures that Governments are currently designing. Limiting people’s exposure to hazardous physical, chemical, and biological agents in air, water, soil, food, and other environmental media will reduce their vulnerability to future pandemics and increase their health and well-being.
Interference with biodiversity due to deforestation, habitat degradation and fragmentation, agriculture intensification, wildlife trade, and climate change helps to create the conditions for pathogens to leap from animals to humans.  It is estimated that zoonotic diseases (infectious diseases that is transmitted between species from animals to humans or from humans to animals) account for three-quarters of new or emerging diseases in humans.
The global crisis of COVID-19 is a stark reminder of the complex links between the transmission of infectious diseases and biodiversity. Biodiversity loss is associated with the transmission of a range of pathogen, while land conversion and wildlife trade bring more people into contact with potentially new diseases. Agricultural expansion and intensification give pressures on biodiversity. The homogeneity and concentration of crop and animal varieties also encourage propagation of disease agents.
Effective conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity will limit the risk of zoonotic transfer while also helping to maintain the existing ecosystem service (many and varied benefits to humans provided by the natural environment and from healthy ecosystem).  The cost of disease transmission from animals to humans should be considered by the Government when risking a disturbance to natural habitats.
While trying to improve levels of livestock production, there could be   environmental degradation and pollution due to increase of livestock population, mismanagement and overutilization of the available natural resources and veterinary products.  
Land use : If not properly carried out, the intensification of livestock production contributes to land degradation through overgrazing, reduced soil fertility, erosion and desertification. Taking into account the diverse agricultural, topographical and geographical aspects involved, proper land use planning and utilization is essential to reducing the risk of adverse ecological developments, while increasing productivity and animal disease control.  Therefore, it requires multidisciplinary approach to ensure the correct planning and  utilization of the land.  
Pollution:  Due to intensification of livestock production, there is increase in use of veterinary products such as pesticides and production of different types of waste, like manure from feedlots. The pollution or contamination of the environment, especially water supplies, due to animal wastes is an increasing problem and must be taken into care while planning to construct new animal house, especially in the industrial production systems. Slaughterhouse wastes also need to dispose properly. Improper disposal of livestock, slaughterhouse and hatchery house wastes can lead to an increase in predatory animal species (e.g. hyenas, rural dogs etc. on land and sharks on sea).
Environmental friendly methods of applying insecticides are becoming available and they have the potential for reducing possibilities of contamination of the environment. Breeds of animals and their crosses resistant to parasitic species can be used for minimizing use of pesticides.  
Changing ecological equilibrium : The reduction of a particular species in an area may have unexpected consequences of the environment through its impact on non-target species. The widespread and disproportionate use of antibiotics and parasiticides has led to the development of strains of pathogens that are resistant to the drug used and thereby complicating the control programmes. Poisoning of coyotes (predators) to control rabies in Mexico has resulted in a dramatic increase in the jackrabbit population, which become a pest in agriculture. Comprehensive planning of animal health interventions is needed to take fully into account the possible ecological consequences. (To be contd)