Health management of poultry

TC Tolenkhomba and Prava Mayengbam
Contd from Saturday
Staphylococcus: Infections appear in three forms — septicemia (acute), arthritic (chronic), and bumblefoot. The septicaemia form appears similar to fowl cholera in that the birds are listless, without appetite, feverish, and show pain during movement. Black rot may show up in eggs (the organism is passed in the egg). Infected birds pass fetid watery diarrhoea. Many will have swollen joints (arthritis) and production drops. The arthritic form follows the acute form. Birds show symptoms of lameness and breast blisters, as well as painful movement. Birds are reluctant to walk, preferring to sit rather than stand. Bumblefoot is a localized chronic infection of the foot, thought to be caused by puncture injuries. The bird becomes lame from swollen foot pads.
Treatment: Novobiocin (350 g/ton) can be given in the feed for 5-7 days. Erythromycin and penicillin can be administered in the water for 3-5 days or in the feed (200 g/ton) for 5 days. Other antibiotics and drugs are only occasionally effective. Prevention:Remove objects that cause injury. Isolate chronically affected birds. Provide nutritionally balanced feed
Management-related Problems
Nutritional problems: Birds that are fed an adequate diet made up from a good commercial feed are unlikely to suffer from nutritional problems unless there are additional factors involved, such as diseases that result in diarrhoea or otherwise interfering with the digestive system.
Stress: Any form of stress may result in a disease outbreak, or diseases in individual birds, as a result of a disease causing organism that is not normally a problem. Any disease will also result in stress, and may therefore increase the potential for other diseases. Stress may result in the immune system not being able to cope with the disease challenge.

(To be contd)