TC Tolenkhomba and Prava Mayengbam
Contd from prev issue
Staphylococcus: Infections appear in three forms — septicemia (acute), arthritic (chronic), and bumblefoot. The septicaemia form appears similar to fowl cholera in that the birds are listless, without appetite, feverish, and show pain during movement. Black rot may show up in eggs (the organism is passed in the egg). Infected birds pass fetid watery diarrhoea. Many will have swollen joints (arthritis) and production drops. The arthritic form follows the acute form. Birds show symptoms of lameness and breast blisters, as well as painful movement. Birds are reluctant to walk, preferring to sit rather than stand. Bumblefoot is a localized chronic infection of the foot, thought to be caused by puncture injuries. The bird becomes lame from swollen foot pads.
Treatment: Novobiocin (350 g/ton) can be given in the feed for 5-7 days. Erythromycin and penicillin can be administered in the water for 3-5 days or in the feed (200 g/ton) for 5 days. Other antibiotics and drugs are only occasionally effective. Prevention:Remove objects that cause injury. Isolate chronically affected birds. Provide nutritionally balanced feed
Nutritional problems: Birds that are fed an adequate diet made up from a good commercial feed are unlikely to suffer from nutritional problems unless there are additional factors involved, such as diseases that result in diarrhoea or otherwise interfering with the digestive system.
Stress: Any form of stress may result in a disease outbreak, or diseases in individual birds, as a result of a disease causing organism that is not normally a problem. Any disease will also result in stress, and may therefore increase the potential for other diseases. Stress may result in the immune system not being able to cope with the disease challenge.
Cannibalism and feather picking: Cannibalism is a problem that is particularly associated with large poultry flocks where birds kept in close confinement peck at each other. This can produce significant mortality in the flock when injury results. It will also cause a decrease in egg production as the hen-pecked birds become stressed. Some chickens are more likely to engage in cannibalism than others. The problem has a range of causes, which are heat without adequate ventilation/nests and nesting areas not dark enough /crowding/ high densities of birds/ boredom or lack of exercise /feed and water troughs too few or too close together/external parasites may cause a chicken to pull out its own feathers, and draw blood. This may attract other birds to peck at the area.
TC Tolenkhomba and Prava Mayengbam College of Veterinary Sciences & A.H.,
C.A.U., Selesih, Aizawl, Mizoram.
For further details contact:- Public Relation & Media Management Cell,
CAU, Imphal. Email: [email protected]