5G impetus : Infrastructure development

Col Atul Kumar
5G is the 5th generation mobile network. It is a new global wireless standard after 1g, 2g, 3g, and 4g networks. 5G enables a new kind of network that is designed to connect virtually everyone and everything together including machines, objects, and devices.
5G wireless technology is meant to deliver higher multi-Gbps peak data speeds, ultra low latency, more reliability, massive network capacity, increased availability, and a more uniform user experience to more users. Higher performance and improved efficiency empower new user experiences and connect new industries. 5G speeds will range from around 50 Mbps to 1,000 Mbps (1 Gbps).
Envisioning the possibilities with 5G-enabled AR/VR technology while augmented and virtual reality are available today, AR and VR wearable devices will become even more impactful to construction and engineering in the coming years. Today’s hardware is expensive, and not particularly comfortable for all-day usage, but it will evolve to lighter weight, more cost friendly versions. This will make AR and VR more adaptable and affordable for the construction industry. With 5G capable of moving and analyzing massive amounts of data to the cloud or edge, AR and VR technology will soon play a supporting role in the construction industry of the future—both during a build and in operations. In the day-to-day, the wearable technology can alert to issues such as a misaligned pipe within the model, maintain quality control, or alert you to a moving piece of equipment. When it comes to operations, AR and VR could even reveal the pressure of a valve, or the location of a buried pipe. The use cases are only becoming more pervasive.
Cloud, mobile, and 5G technologies will play a key role in the evolution of the construction and engineering industry.
2. AIM
To discuss enhancement of road construction in a smart manner by incorporating 5G Technology mechanism and futuristic thereon it.
(a) What is 5G
(b) Implications
(c) AR and VR Technology
i) Augmented reality.
ii) Virtual reality
iii) Advantages of AR and VR Technology            
(d) Enhancement/Impact in working procedures/ software’s being used.
4. (a) WHAT IS 5G: 5G is far superior to the current network in terms of transmission speed. 5G will provide data transmission rates of up to 10gbps, which is 10 to 100 times higher than 4g and 4g-lte. 5G is expected to surpass ultra broadband networks and combine existing technologies such as the internet of things (IOT), cloud, big data, artificial intelligence, and block chain to support the creation of innovative services.
 In addition to improving speed, another significant feature of 5G is its lower latency. As a matter of fact, in the 5G era, the delay time is less than one millisecond (ms), which is almost equal to the zero data response time in the real world. In addition, unlike current internet of things (iot) services, 5G is expected to release a huge internet of things. Not only that, based on the super bandwidth of 5G per unit area, connectivity per unit, coverage (near to 100 percent) and the ability to connect devices, an ecosystem can be established, where "smart networks" can be used for large medical devices and provide real-time interactivity .    
Recently, global companies have taken the lead in the competition for the upcoming 5th-generation (5G) cellular technology, which is thought to be the most important source of revenue in the future.
The 5G network will be broadly introduced as a simple framework for hyper connected mobile devices and will ultimately evolve into a modern 5Gaap (5G platform) platform. Future technology in the 5G environment would create an "intelligent virtual power plant" that will optimize resource usage and incorporate energy use, production and trading. In addition, it is expected that 5G technology will make tremendous changes in the energy industry. 5G is a profound network which is expected to solve or shall bring ease in solving the most crucial social problems like; current social problems, such as climate change, disaster safety and traffic congestion, and ignite the awareness of the concept of smart virtual power plants in the energy sectors. South Korea's 5G technologies can be applied to real-time energy transactions between production and consumption resources, demand management of factories and buildings, and distributed resource management across the country. Therefore, it is possible to analyse and predict energy production and consumption patterns using artificial intelligence engines with present real-time big data. The combination of digital twin technology and 5G technology.
Different industries are currently using 5G in India, among them the top industrial sectors for private 5G are 'technology', retail/wholesale, entertainment, manufacturing, and health/social care. Currently 5G is used in Ahmedabad, Bengaluru, Chennai, Varanasi, Chandigarh, Delhi, Jamnagar, Gandhinagar, Mumbai, Pune, Lucknow, Kolkata, Siliguri, Gurugram and Hyderabad. The target of telecom operators is to get 5G all over the country in the next few years.
5G is used across three main types of connected services, including enhanced mobile broadband, mission-critical communications, and the massive IOT. A defining capability of 5G is that it is designed for forward compatibility—the ability to flexibly support future services that are unknown today.
(i)      Enhanced Mobile Broadband. In addition to making our smartphones better, 5G mobile technology can usher in new immersive experiences such as VR and AR with faster, more uniform data rates, lower latency, and lower cost-per-bit.
(ii)     Mission-critical communications. 5G can enable new services that can transform industries with ultra-reliable, available, low-latency links like remote control of critical infrastructure, vehicles, and medical procedures.
(iii) Massive IOT. 5G is meant to seamlessly connect a massive number of embedded sensors in virtually everything through the ability to scale down in data rates, power, and mobility—providing extremely lean and low-cost connectivity solutions
a)  Higher download speed
The 5G network will have the capacity to increase download speeds by up to 20 times (from 200 mbps (4g) to 10 gbps (5G)) and decreasing latency (response time between devices). These speeds will maximize the browsing experience by facilitating processes that, although possible today, still present difficulties.
b) Hyper connectivity
The 5G network promises the possibility of having a hyper-interconnected environment to reach the point of having the much desired “smart cities”. the correct performance of these new dynamics will depend on the bandwidth of 5G and the internet of things (IOT).
c) Process optimization:
 It is also expected to revolutionize areas such as medicine (remote operations, for example), and traffic management and autonomous vehicles, as well as its implementation in the construction sector to optimize resources and reduce risks.
d) AR and VR technology
Augmented reality and virtual reality are reality technologies that either enhance or replace a real-life environment with a simulated one. These are revolutionizing the architecture industry by allowing designers to experience their visions in real life through a 3D model. While AR and VR are similar and often grouped together in conversation, there are significant differences between the two technologies. AR gives us the ability to apply a digital overlay to our real-life environment. VR is a computer generated environment that you can explore and interact with. Both technologies offer exciting potential for the advancement of processes and opportunities in the architecture and construction sector.
The technological renaissance is transforming industries in ways we’ve never before imagined. The architecture and building sectors have already proved with these innovations and implement them to improve existing practices. Utilising these technologies to optimize our processes and bring our visions to life will set ourselves apart as bench markers in the road construction revolution. If we toying with the idea of incorporating VR and AR technologies into our practice, now’s the perfect time with 5G.
(i) Augmented reality (AR) Augments your surroundings by adding digital elements to a live view, often by using the camera on a smartphone. 5G will usher in a network for AR to operate on, offering faster, more uniform data rates and the low latency required for real-time video interactions, all at a lower cost.
Several types of software algorithms are needed to enable augmented reality. Broadly, these include:
(a)   Image registration – Software that takes a photographic representation of one’s surroundings and uses that information to determine various real-world coordinates and objects within it. Image registration maps the real world and determines what is in the foreground vs. what is in the background, where one object ends and another begins, and points of interest as well as additional information.
(b)   3D rendering – With the real world mapped and categorized, the next step is overlaying the augmented reality information on top of it. The 3D renderer creates virtual objects and places them into the appropriate location within the live image. The programming language Augmented Reality Markup Language (ARML) is the current standard for setting the location and appearance of a virtual object.
(c)   Content management – Content management is a back-end technology incorporating a system that maintains a database of virtual objects and 3D models.
(d)   Interface – Whether it’s a video game or a technical management tool, the interface is the intermediary between the user and the video representation of the augmented reality environment. To be contd