Artificial Intelligence in Defence Forces

Hector Telien Kom
Artificial Intelligence or AI is the general name of the technology for the development of machines, which are created completely by artificial means and can exhibit humanlike behaviors, without taking advantages of any living organisms. AI is the development of computer system that is able to perform tasks that would require human intelligence. The term Artificial Intelligence was first coined by John McCarthy in 1956 when he held the first academic conferences on the subject but the journey to understand machines can truly think began much before that. Five years later Alan Turing wrote a paper on the notion of machines being able to simulate human beings and the ability to do intelligent things, such as play chess.
Today is the age of the fourth Industrial Revolution. The current period of rapid, simultaneously and systematic transformations driven by advances in science is reshaping industries, blurring geographical boundaries challenging existing regulatory framework and even redefining what is meant to be human. AI is creating targeted marketing safer travel through self-driving car, smarter weapons and new efficiencies in manufacturing process, supply chain management and agricultural production. Global investments in artificial intelligence for economic and national security purposes are increasingly being described as an arm race.
The character of AI technology, like robotics, makes many countries well positioned to design and deploy it for military purposes. This explains that AI is increasingly becoming a key component of national security. As India’s 2017 Task Force states: “AI can be a force-multiplier for several national security missions”. Potential applications include Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) and Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles (UCAVs) for underwater and aerial defence operations as well as coastal and border surveillance; robot mules for unburdening soldiers; robots for counter-IED and counter-terrorism operations and close-in-protection system against cruise missiles and similar aerial threats.
 In some areas where AI-based system could be usefully deployed are: autonomous surveillance and combat system, adaptive communications system, AI-based cyber-attack mitigation and counter-attack system and multi-sensor data fusion – based decision – making system. AI Technology plays a vital role in Military Warfare Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance. Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) are replacing new heights of efficiency that enable data collection and processing at unprecedented scale and speed.
Military drones for surveillance : Military unit across the world are employing drones in channel remote communication, both video and audio, to ground troops and to military bases, track enemy movements, Aids with operations like peace keeping and border surveillance.  
Decision Making : AI assisted decision making could help leaders to all levels rapidly design, plan and evaluate operations. The AI would continuously monitor the environment and warn planners when assumptions are no longer valid or if there is an opportunity to improve the plans. The true power of AI will be in the teaming of the human mind with the AI mind.
Common Operating Picture (COP) : It would catalog and display a disposition of friendly and enemy forces, automatically built and updated through a big data approach. In a real time, the AI would continuously interpret the situation, explore multiple lines of effort and determine which is most likely to meet the given success criteria.
Cyberspace : AI System plays a powerful role in cyberspace for both defensive and offensive measures. AI can perform predictive analytics to anticipate cyber-attacks by generating dynamic threat from available data sources, interpreting these data, identifying vulnerability and taking action to prevent or mitigate future attacks.
Logistics : AI is expected to play a crucial role in military logistics and transport. AI has potential to help the larger Army reshape and force up additional soldiers for critical areas like combat arms and intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance.
Intelligence : The Intelligence Community (IC) faces daunting challenges of volume and velocity as well as an ever increasing complexity of variety of data. This results isan inability to fuse data to create multi-sourced intelligence cycle and as a close to the point of collection as possible. Digital transformation, methodical multi-domain data integration, and algorithmic warfare will be the heart of the intelligence enterprise’s role in sustaining long-term competitive advantages.
Autonomous Weapon Systems (AWS):Autonomous weapons system are lethal devices that have been empowered by their human creators to survey their surroundings, identify potential enemy targets, and independently choose to attack those targets on the basis of sophisticated algorithm and reduces the human causalities in war.
Drones : AI-based drones rely largely on computer vision. This technology enables drones to detect objects while flying and allows the analysis and recording of information on the ground. Unmanned systems require significant human resources to operate. Various developers and border security authorities plan to implement a heterogeneous robotic system, the Indian borders with the key focus areas like LAC, LOC, India-Bangladesh and India-Myanmar border, India can use Unmanned and automated land and aerial vehicles for better patrolling and continuous surveillance on the movement of Insurgents, Smugglers and patrol parties of neighboring countriesalong the border effectively.
At, present, many pertinent AI technologies are immature. Modern unmanned aircraft in service can operate autonomously, but cannot yet execute the sorts of complex missions that manned equivalent can achieve. AI is already a military reality. Technological innovations could have large scale consequences for the global balance of power and international conflict. Militaries around the world will have to grapple with how to change recruiting and promotion policies to empower soldiers who understand algorithms and coding, as well as potential shifts in force structure to take advantages of AI-based coordination on the battlefield. It is too early to tell what the impact of AI will be, but technological development suggests it will have at least some effects.