Malaria : One of the deadliest diseases in the world

    25-Apr-2022
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Satyavan 'Saurabh'
World Malaria Day 2022 is being observed by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 25th April with the theme ‘Using innovation to reduce the burden of malarial disease and save lives.’ World Malaria Day was established on 25th April 2007 by the World Health Organization at the 60th session of the World Health Assembly. Malaria is caused by a parasite that is usually carried by the deposition of parasitic sporozoites in the skin of humans by a certain type of mosquito, the female Anopheles. Malaria is a major cause of human mortality. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there are 212 million new cases of malaria and 430,000 malaria-related deaths worldwide each year, despite enormous progress in tackling the disease.
Malaria is an acute febrile disease. In a non-immune person, symptoms usually appear 10-15 days after being bitten by an infected mosquito. The first symptoms–fever, headache, and chills–may be mild and difficult to recognize as malaria. If left untreated within 24 hours, falciparum malaria can turn into a serious illness, often leading to death. Children with severe malaria often develop one or more of the following symptoms: severe anemia, respiratory distress about metabolic acidosis, or cerebral malaria. In adults, multi-organ failure is also frequent. In malaria-endemic areas, people may develop partial immunity, leading to asymptomatic infection.
Malaria has been one of the deadliest diseases in the world. It kills more than 400,000 people worldwide each year and causes disease in millions. Africa is home to 70% of the world's malaria cases and 90% of deaths. Over the past two decades, existing interventions have reduced the burden of malaria. And India has also made good progress in malaria control. The disease burden has come down by 59 percent. This success has prompted the government to commit to eliminating malaria by 2030. The majority of malaria cases were reported from the African region (93%), followed by the South-East Asia region (3.4%) and the Eastern Mediterranean region (2.1%). India and nineteen countries in sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 85 percent of the global malaria burden, with six countries accounting for more than half of the global malaria cases. The countries included Nigeria (25%), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (12%), Uganda (5%), Cte d'Ivoire, Mozambique, and Niger (4% each).
(To be contd)