On farm production of Mycorrhizae
Yanglem Herojit Singh, K Mamocha Singh, Kennedy Ninthoujam, Ng Taibangnganbi Chanu
Mycorrhiza are symbiotic relationships between fungi and roots of higher plats and such fungus-roots are called mycorrhizae. Perhaps more than 80% plant species are having mycorrhizal association. The exceptions are many members of the Cruciferae family (e.g., broccoli, mustard), and the Chenopodiaceae family (e.g., lambs quarters, spinach, beets), which do not form mycorrhizal associations. The level of dependency on mycorrhizae varies greatly among varieties of some crops, including wheat and corn. Mycorrhizae increases the root’s ability to absorb the nutrients (phosphorus (P), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu)) and water from the soil by increasing the surface absorbing area of roots from 100 to 1,000 times.
All the cultivated plants remove large quantity of nutrients from soil, particularly NPK. Among these major nutrients, the efficiency of applied P through chemical fertilizers is very low i.e., 15 to 20%. This is due to fixation of applied phosphorous in the soil into unavailable form. Therefore, there is need to enhance the phosphorous availability by using phosphorous solubilising microorganisms (PSM). Among PSM, different species of mycorrhizal fungi have been reported to be effective in increasing growth and uptake of phosphorous by different plant species. Mycorrhiza filaments extend from the roots into the soil, reaching several times beyond the root hairs. Nutrients are taken up by the hyphae and carried to the plant.
Types of Mycorrhizae
On the basis of morphological and anatomical features, mycorrhizae are divided into three types:
It is a mycorrhizal association in which the fungal hyphae are present on root surface as individual threads that may penetrate directly into root hairs, other epidermal cells and into cortical cells.
Endomycorrhizae further classified into five types:
i. VAM fungi (vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae)
ii. Orchidoid mycorrhizae
iii. Monotropoid mycorrhizae
iv. Ericoid Mycorrhizae
v. Arbutoid mycorrhizae
VAM fungi (vesicular Arbuscule mycorrhizae)
(To be contd)