Perceived class conflict triggers friction among ethnic groups in Manipur

Sunil Thongam
Contd from previous issue
The Government will have to invent various steps to promote economic development and social stability or else movement of separatism will continue to persist. We can perceive class conflict in the State. Neither Nagas nor Kukis want to remain as second class citizens.
It can be easily made out that class struggle and class warfare has triggered friction among the ethnic groups which can be termed as political tension. Antagonism does exist in Manipur.
The Meiteis, Nagas and Kukis have disagreed on which group has greater historical claim to Manipur. They believe their respective ancestors were indigenous to the region.
Insurgency and other social movements have reinforced ethnic identities and long standing cultural differences have resulted in resentments among the ethnic groups.  
Supremacism is the belief that a certain group of people is superior to all others. The Meiteis are the dominant population and most important ethnic group in Manipur.
The ethnic communities in Manipur believe in nativism. Each group claims they are indigenous people of the land. The NSCN-IM a few years back had claimed that the Meiteis and Nagas are the only two indigenous communities that have been recorded to be living in Manipur since time immemorial.
It's said ethnicity is linked with cultural expression and identification and race is usually associated with biology and linked with physical characteristics such as skin color or hair texture. However, scientists have argued that race is a social construct.
An extract from an article: The Jews in Israel differ considerably from one another in how they understand their Jewish identity. Hilonim has a very different concept of Jewish identity: 83% say being Jewish is mainly about ancestry or culture. Haredim are the most religiously devout group in Israel, with 96% saying religion is very important in their lives, compared with 30% of all Israeli Jews.
In the early 20th century, as the US industrialized, immigration increased, and Nazism spread from Europe, many Americans became nativists and tried to exclude newer immigrants—who were often poorer than those of the 19th century—from being considered white.  
Jews began to be called non-white, and many even started calling Jews black.  For example, in 1910, professor Arthur Abernathy published a book called The Jew a Negro, claiming Jews and Africans were racially identical.  When the US entered WWII against Ger- many, many Americans stopped identifying Jews as a separate race in opposition to the genocidal racial ideas of Nazis.  
In the 21st century, while most Americans believe Jews are white, racial issues linger.
For example, in 2017, after the superhero movie Wonder Woman was criticized for lacking racial diversity, some critics countered that the main character, played by Jewish actress Gal Gadot, is a person of color.
This caused major debate in US Jewish media, with many Jewish journalists claiming that Gadot is white and others that she is a person of color.  Racial hate crimes against Jews also remain common.