Bio-security key to prevent diseases in livestock as well as poultry farm

Kalyan Sarma and Girin Kalita
Contd from previous issue
For this, there are three types of biosecurity measures of disease control as follows.
1. Conceptual biosecurity
2. Structural biosecurity
3. Operational biosecurity
Conceptual Biosecurity
· It is best to build farm in an isolated area, at least three km away from nearest farm in the case of breeder farm and 1.6 km in the case of commercial farm.
· In the case of breeders, the farm should be away from the major road ways
· Maintain enough distance between breeders and grow-out farms and facilities such as hatcheries and feed mill
Structural Biosecurity
· Fencing of farm to prevent unwanted visitors.
· Analysis of water for minerals, bacteria, chemical contamination and pathogen load (once in 2-3 months)
· Feed should be stored in suitable location.
· Scientific disposal of dead birds and waste.
· Restrict the entry of wild birds and rodent.
· Feed, litter and equipment should be stored in a section separated from live bird area to prevent contamination.
· Proper decontamination and disinfection of equipment, houses
Operational Biosecurity
· Microbes enter through air and mechanical carriers like human beings, vehicles, predators (vultures, wild birds).
· Exchange of infected equipment and material among farms or with traders.
· Unauthorised visitors should be completely banned to enter poultry houses.
· Outside vehicles should not be allowed to enter farm premises
· Footbath at entrance.
· Farm vehicles allowed through disinfectant dips
· In breeding farms, all visitors and workers require showering and use clean farm clothes to prevent cross contamination between them.
· Wild birds control
· Maintain record for visitors and their purpose.
· In the case of breeders, no vehicles or equipment should be allowed within the farm area from the time of delivery of flock until disposal.
· In commercial broiler unit, a minimum inter flock interval of two weeks is recommended.
· Control pest and rodent through biological, chemical and mechanical means.
· Recycling of egg packing materials etc. should be decontaminated at the pot of entry of farm.
· Routine disease monitoring procedures like post mortem examination and periodic serum antibody assay to determine immune status of the flock.
· Regular culling of unhealthy, unproductive and diseased birds
· Periodical vaccination and medication.
· Supply of feed & water
The basic steps of a good biosecurity plan appropriate for livestock exhibitors are listed below.
Before and During Shows:
· Do not exhibit animals that have clinical signs of any contagious disease.
· Examination by a veterinarian and a health certificate issued prior to the fair.
· Change or wash clothing and shoes worn at the fair before returning to work with other animals.
· Do not share equipment among exhibitors, unless it is disinfected between uses.
· As much as possible, use separate feeding and watering equipment for the show animals and home-based animals.
· When handling animals that are actively infected with ringworm or club lamb fugus, wear rubber gloves and wash with a detergent soap after handling.
· Many shows for market animals have the option of selling the animal for harvest at the conclusion of the show.
· Support the requirement and enforcement of animal health regulations.
After Bringing Animals Home from a Show:
· Isolate animals that you take home for a minimum of 21 days before reintroducing them to your Flock or herd.
· Animals should d be separated by a minimum of 300 yards.
· Closely monitor all animals for fever and other signs of infection.
· There should be a complete change of clothing and shoes worn at the fair, before retuning to work with other animals at home.
· Fair clothing and footwear should be thoroughly washed before wearing it around the livestock at home.
· Any feeding, watering or other equipment that has been to the show should be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected before using it with home based animals.
By strict execution of above discussed measures, microbial load in a farm can be reduce to a great level, which enable the farmers to adopt cost effective measures in terms of antibiotics and feeding, water treatment, litter treatment etc. The recent trend of production of healthy food for human can only be possible adopting proper bio-security measures.
The writers are from College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Central Agricultural University, Selesih, Aizawl, Mizoram
For further details contact: - Public Relations& Media Management Cell, CAU, Imphal. Email: [email protected]