Use of locally available agri wastes as substrate for mass production of trichoderma harzanium

    06-Sep-2022
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Pranab Dutta and BC Das
Contd from previous issue
4. FYM, banana leaves, banana peeled skin, wheat bran for soil application.
5. Molasses enriched charcoal powder granules.
6. Liquid coating formulations bio-protectant as powder on which suspension of aqueous binder is sprayed on seeds to form 0.1 mm thick layer.
7. As spray form emulsifiable concentrations with 10 spores in all of the above formulations. It is necessary to maintain level of 1-10 cfu ml-1 or g.
MATERIALS REQUIRED FOR PREPARATION OF FORMULATION
1. Freshly isolated native Trichoderma harzianum pure culture
2. PDA media
3. Substrates
4. Distilled water
5. Poly propylene bags/saline bottle
6. Racks
7. Rubber bands
8. Laminar flow cabinet
9. Inoculating needle
10. Spirit lamp
11. Cotton (both absorbent and non absorbent)
12. Spirit lamp
13. Methylated spirit
14. Ethyl Alcohol
15. Petri plates
16. Cork borer
17. Measuring cylinder
18. Muslin cloth
19. Plastic Bucket and mugs
20. BOD incubator
METHODS OF APPLICATION
The methods presently used for effective management of diseases includes the application of Trichoderma by any of these methods viz., broadcast application, furrow application, root zone application, seed coating or seed treatment, wound application.
a. Broadcasting
Broadcasting is used for soil application. The quantity required is high and varies from 125-250 kg ha -1. It is mixed with FYM and broadcasted on the soil and then incorporated into the soil through harrowing. It is used to control Sclerotinia rot of vegetables, damping off of vegetables, stem rot of soybean. Trichoderma is applied by this method at least 2 weeks before sowing of crops.
b. Furrow application
It is comparatively economical to broadcasting and is followed in nurseries. The quantity required 130-160 kg ha-1. It should be applied in the open furrows covered with the soil. Trichoderma is applied by this method 15 days before sowing of the seeds.
c. Root zone application
This is used in wide spaces crop such as plantation and fruit crops. It is done in peach and plum against silver leaf diseases.
d. Seed treatment
In this method of application, the seeds are first mixed with water 5-7 ml kg-1, so that the seed surface becomes moist. Take known quantity of seed formulation (Powder form) 4 g kg-1 seed, mix thoroughly by agitating the container so that the powder adheres to the seed surface. Then treated seeds should be dried I shade for two hours and sown immediately after treatment. This formulation can used to apply on and around the root zone. This helps good seed germination, seedling emergence and finally good plant stands. It also gives protection in the rhizosphere against root rots, stem rot, seedling blight, damping off, collar rot, white mold, rhizome rot of various crops such as chick pea, cabbage, cauliflower, French bean, brinjal, chilli, cucumber, potato, ginger, rice, sunflower caused by Rhizoctoniasolani, Pyhiumapphanidermataum, Sclerotiniasclerotiorum, Fusarium oxysporum, F. moniliforme, Sclerotium rolfsii etc.
ECONOMICS
Cost of production (Excluding laboratory equipment) : Rs. 30 kg-1
Selling price : Rs. 60 kg-1
ADVANTAGES
· Parasital activity takes place on different stages of insect ontogenesis.
· The fungus possesses the high speed of growth, huge reproductive ability and high specificity.
· It is able to remain for a long time in nature without the decline of infectivity.
· The effectiveness of this product depends very much on climatic condition (temp 25-280C and relative air humidity of 80-90%), the methods of application and doses.
· Easy to deliver.
· Improve plant growth, flowering and increases yield.
· Safe to the environment, human beings, animals.
· The no risk of development of resistance in pathogen.
· Compatible with biofertilizer like rhizobium, azospirrillium etc.
PRECAUTIONS
· Formulation must free of contamination.
· Store in cool and dark place, avoid direct sunlight.
· It uses for seed treatment, the treated seeds must be dried in shade at least for 6 hrs prior to sowing.
· Application must be done in cooler hrs of a day.
· Culture must be periodically re-isolate from the crop rhizosphere of phyllo sphere.
· Avoid direct contact on skin.
The writers are with College of PG studies in Agricultural Sciences, CAU, Imphal, Umiam 793103, Meghalaya and Regional Rice Research Station, Titabar, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat, Assam For further details contact: - Public Relations& Media Management Cell, CAU, Imphal. Email: [email protected]