Dr Lalhumliana Tochhawng
contd from prev issue
There are many technologies generated which cannot be tested in farmers' fields resulting in difficulty in dissemination of the technology. On Field Trials (OFT) and Front-Line Demonstration (FLD) needs to be carried out in order to achieve better outcome of technology in the long run.
5. Convergence of different institutions and undertakings
One of the major drawbacks in diffusion and implementation of different schemes and proposed projects is the players of many organizations and institutions in the country. A holistic framework must be in place for convergence of programs by different institutions so that farmers get benefited which ultimately leads to achieving the desired objectives of any planned programs.
6. Other factors
Other factors In constraints of adoption of technologies are conflicting messages which hinder the uptake of technology. Some agricultural policies are encouraging the expansion of agriculture on environmentally fragile land, overexploiting natural resources and not requiring farmers to take account of environmental spill-overs into other sectors like the loss of our indigenous germplasm in cattle due to introduction of exotic breeds without proper breeding policy or indiscriminate breeding that are followed. Many support policies get capitalised into the value of land, encouraging a greater intensity of production and influencing the kind of technologies adopted. Some agricultural policies impose environmental constraints on farmers as a condition for receiving support, but at levels higher than otherwise to compensate for environmental damage caused by other agricultural policies. Inadequate levels of education, access to advice and pressures on financial resources for some farmers slow the adoption of some technologies, especially those that require a larger scale of operations and where the initial investment costs required are high.
Future strategies in promotion of planned technology
The overall policy framework needs to be consistent and coherent, in the context of technology formulation in research to the farmers’ field. This requires a more integrated approach in terms of setting objectives for sustainable agriculture, defining research and development priorities, and targeting and implementing policy measures at the appropriate level. For example, where the sustainability issue is local, objectives might best be addressed through local solutions. However, in practice it is a considerable challenge to achieve policy coherence across a range of government, ministries, and other institutions.
The challenge is to identify what technologies work best in specific circumstances, and define and provide the right incentive framework, so as to facilitate the achievement of sustainability goals in ways that enhance better adoption of any planned technology, in accordance with policy principles. Sometimes goals can be reconciled simply by changing the level, type, and location of agricultural production. Reconciling those goals, however, also means that the rights and responsibilities of farmers regarding the adoption of technologies and practices need to be clearly defined and applied (taking into account the current distribution of property rights), and thus the situations under which they are entitled to remuneration (provider gets) or obliged to pay (polluter pays). The attribution of property rights has important implications for the distribution of income, wealth and equity.
There is a need for greater follow-up in tracking the adoption of technologies for sustainable farming systems and in the accountability of research efforts and policies for technology dissemination and adoption. Rigorous ex-post assessments of results could help ensure that corrections are made before too much is invested in the wrong technology. This is important as technologies affecting agriculture arise from a wide range of sources; ranking technologies and identifying possible future trends can help the policy making process in moving towards sustainable agriculture. They can also provide information on what is helping and what is hindering the adoption of technologies able to achieve sustainability goals by contributing to the development of criteria to assess technology adoption, analysing the appropriate ways to measure and assess progress, and outlining alternative policy and market options.
For further details contact: - Public Relations & Media Management Cell, CAU, Imphal. Email: [email protected]