Importance of farm pond for agriculture and farmers in Manipur

Dr L Kanta Singh, Dr Ch Basudha, Dr Lydia Zimik, Dr Arati N, Dr S Roma Devi, K Lily Rangnamei and Dr W Elizabeth Devi
In the current situation, while the Manipur struggles with the issue of water scarcity, farmers also experience issues with farming, such as low crop output and lower income owing to unpredictability in the rain and water cycle. Uncertainty in the distribution of rainfall is a result of climate changes.
As a result, little rainfall is occurring in high rainfall areas, and vice versa. Hence, farmers can only grow crops during the rainy season throughout the year. They can only think about the crop during the rainy season without water. Thus farmers need water in order to use the arable land resource to cultivate high-value crops.
Farmers have utilised river water for irrigation since the beginning of time, but farm ponds have just come to be recognised as a significant supply of water for farmers. Farm ponds are a type of water storage tank or reservoir used to collect rainwater from agricultural land for irrigation, livestock feed, and fish farming. By 2022, the Indian Government wanted to treble the income of farmers. One method for promoting water conservation is the use of farm ponds.
 Most of the rain flows off the surface. Not only does runoff waste water, but it also washes away priceless top soil. Farm ponds assist farmers in storing and using water for irrigation. There are numerous Government pro- grammes that give farmers financial aid for building agricultural ponds. Farm ponds help farmers raise their income and the productivity of their land by 200%.
Farm ponds are simple reservoir-like structures or tanks used to store surface runoff generated by catchment regions. Farm ponds are water-har
vesting structures designed to meet a range of agricultural needs, such as the supply of water for irrigation, the manufacture of livestock feed, and the raising of fish, among others. Farm ponds also significantly contribute to flood control in the area by being constructed in large numbers.
Also, the agricultural ponds are utilised to store monsoon water, which is then used for a number of other purposes, including crop irrigation. A farm pond is also very important in rainfed farming.
Benefits of Farm Pond
· Increase in farm productivity means more crops.
· Increase in land productivity as well value of agriculture land.
· With availability of water, increase chances to grow cash crops through irrigation technologies.
· Increase in income of farmers.
· Farmer can do fish farming in the pond, which will provide them more opportunity to grow their agriculture business.
· Improve the quality of crop yield.
· Farm pond provides water to growing crops, without waiting for rainfall. ·        
· Farm pond provides water for irrigation, even when there is no rain.
· Farm pond provides reduce soil erosion.
· Farm pond recharges ground water.
· Farm pond improves drainage.
· The excavated soil can be used to enrich soil in fields and levelling lands.
· They provide water for domestic purposes and other livestock.
Types of farm ponds
There are two types of farm pond, first is embankment type and second is dugout type.
Embankment type farm pond
Embankment type farm ponds are constructed across the stream or water course where land slope is from gentle to steep.  An embankment of earth is constructed as per volume of water to be stored.
Farm ponds with an embankment style are typically built across a stream or watercourse. The basic component of these ponds is an earthen embankment, whose dimensions are determined mostly by the amount of water to be stored.
These agricultural ponds are typically built where there is a range in the land’s slope from gentle to moderately steep, as well as where the stream valleys are sufficiently depressed to provide for the most storage with the least amount of earthwork.
Dug out type farm pond
Dug out type farm pond are constructed on flat land area by excavating the soil from the ground. The size and depth of the farm pond depend upon catchment area and volume of water to be stored.
(To be contd)