Traumatic experiences stemming from ‘Kuki’-Meitei bloody clash Death anxiety among displaced inmates in burning Sanaleibak-Kangleipak
Chakpram Purnima Devi, UGC’s Junior Research Fellow (Independent)
Contd from previous issue
Considering the findings of several studies, the following hypothesis was tested:
Hypothesis 1: Younger inmates would experience higher death anxiety than older inmates.
GENDER AND DEATH ANXIETY
Gender is frequently linked to death anxiety, in which women perceived higher death fear and anxiety than men In contrast, gender did not affect death anxiety level. As being male or female does not increase or decrease one’s death anxiety in elderly people. Another variable that is considered to have link to death anxiety is depression in which women are twice as likely as men to display symptoms of depression, particularly during young adulthood and late in life (i.e., after menopause).
Reasons for High or Low Death Anxiety based on Gender
There are many arguments as to why death anxiety is higher in women. A study proposed than in most societies, men are encouraged to pursue success and attain accomplishments which would cultivate the illusion of immortality, while women are not. This illusion is useful as people rely on it to counter and conquer death anxiety. Other researchers declared that because women more readily admit troubling feelings as compared to men, their death anxiety scores are higher.
Other study claimed why females experience higher levels of death anxiety when compared to males can be explained by the process of socialization, in which boys were taught not to complain or cry and thus do not view expressing their feelings as desirable, whereas, girls were taught that it is okay to cryand express their concerns and feelings.
Higher death anxiety among females may be because women have more emotional attachment and concerns about their feelings and thoughts than men. It was also suggested by Abdel-Khalek 1991 that men tend to show themselves stronger in the face of damages and concerns and express their anxiety less.
Regarding, young adults, death anxiety is higher in younger females. Other possible explanations for the gender effect is simply that men are less willing to admit openly to their fears. Or conversely, women may be “closer to their feelings than men”.
The results indicated women having higher death anxiety (77.27%) than men, while 22.73% found no significant gender differences in death anxiety. Taking all the studies into account, the following hypothesis was tested:
Hypothesis 2: Female inmates would experience higher death anxiety than male inmates.
EDUCATION AND DEATH ANXIETY
Studies found that highly educated individuals had lower death anxiety, while individuals with lower education were more prone to feel depressed and anxious compared to highly educated ones. The findings suggested that higher education is related to the Thought and Volition (free-will) factor. Other study found that death anxiety level increased with the increase in education. People with higher education were found to have moderate death anxiety.
Studies of the relationship between death anxiety and death education have yielded mixed results found that among a sample of college students, courses on death education served to decrease the fear of death, whereas other studies have shown mixed effects of death education on death anxiety.
The findings of some studies reviewed above suggested that education is a good predictor of lower death anxiety.
The findings indicated that most studies (35.71%) found highly educated people having lower death anxiety; (35.71%) found highly educated people; 7.14% found increasing level of death anxiety with the increase in education level; and 21.43% reported mixed results after imparting death education. Based on the findings of the studies, the following hypo- thesis was tested to determine whether higher education level decreases death anxiety:
Hypothesis 3: The higher the levels of education, the lower will be the death anxiety.
OCCUPATION AND DEATH ANXIETY
People with low income group have higher level of death anxiety than those with high income group. This is because of many insecurities about their future lives.
Socio-Economic Status (SES) and Death Anxiety: Studies found that people with higher SES had moderate death anxiety.
Another study found the occupational groups to be differed significantly in their fear of death of self and dying.
(To be contd)