Chakpram Purnima Devi, UGC’s Junior Research Fellow (Independent)
Contd from previous issue
In a study to explore whether those in different occupations differed in their fear of death among firefighters, police officers, students in business administration, and college faculty members, it was found that “overall, the fire fighters and police officers significantly had stronger fears of death and dying than the college faculty and business students”.
In another study among nurses giving nursing care to patients with Covid-19 in a hospital in Turkey, it was found to have significantly high death anxiety level.
The results revealed that 62.50% studies found people with higher socio- economic status having moderate levels of death anxiety; 12.50% found low income group having higher death anxiety; and 25.00% found people engaging in life-threatening occupations.
Based on the findings of the studies, the following hypothesis was tested.
Hypothesis: There will be significant differences in death anxiety among people working in organised and unorganised sector, including unemployed partici- pants.
MARITAL STATUS AND DEATH ANXIETY
Studies revealed that married respondents have higher death anxiety than unmarried ones. On the other hand, unmarried respondents experienced more death anxiety than married ones, and married older adults have higher levels of death anxiety compared to widowed older adults.
In a study conducted among a Lithuanin University students, it was found no significant difference in death anxiety between single and married participants.
The study found 50% married people having higher death anxiety; 25% found unmarried experiencing more death anxiety; and 25% found no difference in death anxiety between married and unmarried. It suggested that most married people had higher death anxiety than unmarried ones. Considering, the findings of the study the following hypothesis was tested:
Hypothesis: Married inmates would have higher death anxiety than unmarried ones.
HEALTH CONDITIONS AND DEATH ANXIETY
Both physical and psychological health signifi- cantly affected the levels of death anxiety. Higher level of psychological wellbeing is associated with lower level of death anxiety. In contrast, a study, conducted in China 2018 revealed that physical health was unrelated to death anxiety among Chinese elderly people.
Several studies found good physical health to be associated with lower death anxiety.
The results indicated 55.60% studies found people with good health to have lower death anxiety; (11.11%) study found no linkage between health and death anxiety; and (33.33%) reported to have positive relationship between physical and psychological health to be related to low or high death anxiety. Since most studies indicated good health to be a good predictor of low death anxiety, it was hypothesized that:
Hypothesis : Participants with good physical health would have lower death anxiety than participants with poor physical health.
To sum up, an attempt was made to explore the extent of Post Traumatic death anxiety levels among displaced inmates, taking shelter in the relief camps located in Imphal. In the following sections, we shall discuss socio-demographic characteristics of the participants, results and discu- ssions, findings and conclusions, limitations of the study, destructive consequences of death anxiety, and psychological interventions for death anxiety.
Table 2:Global Death Anxiety: Majority of the respondents had Moderate (75.50%) level of death anxiety, Low (13.20%), and High (11.30%) and the difference was statistically highly significant at <0.001 level.
Table 3:Age and Death Anxiety: No significant (>0.05 level) age differences among younger and older respondents in death anxiety was noted, withM=9.85, SD=3.071 and M=9.79, SD=2.747, respectively, but younger participants tended to have higher death anxiety. Hence, the hypothesis that “Younger inmates would experience higher death anxiety than older inmates” was not supported.
Table 4:Gender and Death Anxiety: Females (M=10.22, SD=2.89) significantly (<0.05 level) scored higher death anxiety than males (M=9.13, SD=2.76). Hence, the hypothesis that “Female inmates would experience higher death anxiety than male inmates” was supported.
Table 5:Education Level and Death Anxiety: Illiterates (M=10.39,SD=2.95) significantly (<0.05 level) had higher death anxiety than students (M=9.21,SD=2.71) and educated ones(M=9.97, SD=2.93). Hence, the hypothesis that”The higher the levels of education, the lower will be the death anxiety” was supported.
(To be contd)